KILL, a parish, partly in the barony of SOUTH NAAS, but chiefly in that of SOUTH SALT, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 3 1/2 miles (N. E.) from Naas, on the road from that place to Dublin; containing 2493 inhabitants. A commandery for Knights Hospitallers was founded at Kilhill in the 13th century, by Maurice Fitzgerald, and chapters of the order were held here in 1326, 1332, 1333, and 1334; it existed till the Reformation, when it was granted to John Allen. The parish comprises 9986 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £7897 per annum: the soil is of good quality and principally under tillage. It includes the merged parish of Kerdiffstown, or Cardifftown, comprising 670 acres. The village of Kill consists of 113 houses, and has a neat appearance. Bishopscourt is the handsome residence of the Hon. F. Ponsonby; and here is the seat of Mrs. Hendrick, in the demesne of which are the picturesque ruins of the old church of Kerdiffstown. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Kildare, episcopally united to the rectory of Lyons, and held with the impropriate parish of Whitechurch; the rectory is partly impropriate in the Earl of Mayo and partly appropriate to the vicarage. The tithes amount to £696. 13. 6., of which £305 is payable to the impropriator, and £391. 13. 6. to the incumbent; and the entire tithes of the benefice amount to £468. 10. The church is a very neat structure, with a square tower and lofty spire, built in 1821 by aid of a loan of £2000 from the late Board of First Fruits, and recently repaired by a grant of £144 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners: it has an organ, which was given by the Earl of Mayo. There is a glebe-house, with a glebe of 16a. 1r. 36p. In the R. C. divisions the parish is partly in the union or district of New-bridge, and partly the head of a union, comprising the remainder of Kill and the parishes of Lyons, Bodenstown, and Furnace, and containing a chapel at Ard-clough, in Lyons, and one at Kill, which is a remarkably neat building, with a tower and spire, completed in 1826. In the village is a school of about 30 children, under the trustees of Erasmus Smith’s charity; the school-house, an ornamented building, is kept in repair by the Earl of Mayo. There are also two other public schools, in which are about 90 children; and in two private schools are about 50 children; Here is a large moat; and about a mile eastward is Heartwell, formerly a castellated mansion surrounded by a fosse. Numerous skeletons have been found in turning up the ground. Near Heartwell is a rivulet, on the bank of which are extensive depositions of calcareous tufa, which are hardened by exposure to the air, and although very porous are sometimes used in building. Extensive ramifications of stalactite are also found.
LYONS, a parish, in the barony of SOUTH SALT, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 3 miles (S.) from Celbridge; containing 158 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the Grand Canal, comprises 1904 statute acres, of which about 160 are woodland, and the remainder divided in nearly equal portions between pasture and tillage. The soil is fertile and the system of agriculture improved, and there is a very small portion of waste land. Lyons Castle, the splendid seat of Lord Cloncurry, takes its name from an ancient town and castle which were destroyed in the war of 1641; of the former there are no traces, and of the latter, only one of the principal towers, which, with the remains of the ancient church, forms an interesting feature in his Lordship’s demesne. The present structure is a castellated mansion of granite, consisting of a spacious centre connected by semicircular colonnades with a stately pavilion at each extremity: the interior contains many superb apartments, of which some are beautifully embellished in fresco by Gabrielli, an artist brought from Rome by his Lordship for that purpose; and in addition to the numerous antiques and choice works of art with which his lordship’s collection is enriched, one of the pavilions is appropriated as a gallery of statuary and sculpture by the first masters, as a study for native artists. The demesne, which is very extensive and tastefully laid out, includes the hill of Castlewarden, on which are the remains of an ancient fortification; and nearly in the centre is a picturesque lake. A constabulary police force is stationed here. The parish is in the diocese of Kildare, and is a rectory, forming part of the union of Kill; the tithes amount to £76. 16. 6. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of Kill and Lyons; the chapel, a neat plain building, erected in 1810, is embellished with a bronze crucifix, 2 1/2 feet high, given by Pope Pius VII. to Lord Cloncurry, and together with an elegant font of white marble brought from Rome, presented by his Lordship to the chapel. There is a national school, in which about 90 children are taught, under the patronage of Lord Cloncurry.
NEWCASTLE, or NEWCASTLE-juxta-LYONS, a parish (formerly a parliamentary borough), in the barony of NEWCASTLE, county of DUBLIN, and province of LEINSTER, 2 miles (N. W.) from Rathcoole; containing 1100 inhabitants, of which number, 397 are in the village. A charter, dated March 30th, 1613, was granted to this place by Jas. I. whereby it was erected into a corporation, consisting of a portreeve, 12 free burgesses, and a commonalty, with power to appoint inferior officers; to hold a court of record for pleas to the amount of five marks, and to be a guild mercatory and the portreeve to be clerk of the market. In 1608, a grant was made to Jas. Hamilton, Esq., to hold a market here on Thursdays, and fairs on the feasts of St. Swithin and All Saints, and the day after each; and in 1762 the portreeve and burgesses obtained a grant of a market on Mondays, and fairs on May 9th and Oct. 8th. All of these markets and fairs are discontinued. The borough also sent two members to the Irish parliament, but it was disfranchised at the Union. There is a dispensary in the village, and it is a constabulary police station. Agriculture is in a high state of improvement: the principal crops are wheat, oats, and potatoes. There are good quarries, the stone of which is used for building and repairing the roads. The Grand Canal passes through the parish. Part of the demesne of Lyons, the splendid seat of the Rt. Hon. Lord Cloncurry, is in the parish: the other seats are Athgoe Park, the residence of Mrs. Skerrett, one part of which is an old castle, erected at a very early period, and in the grounds is the tower or keep of Colmanstown, and an old burial-place; Newcastle House, the seat of Alex. Graydon, Esq.; Newcastle, of the Very Rev. Archdeacon Langrishe; Peamount, of C. E. Kennedy, Esq.; Colganstown, of J. Andrews, Esq.; and Newcastle, of O. Moore, Esq. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Dublin, and was made the corps of the archdeaconry of Glendalough by an act of the 8th of Edw. IV. (1467); it is in the patronage of the Archbishop. The tithes amount to £250. A small plot of ground in Myler’s Alley, Dublin, measuring 1r. 24p., on which some houses stand that are let on lease at £18. 9. 2. per ann., belongs to the archdeaconry: the gross annual value of the dignity is £418. 9. 2. There is a glebe-house, and a glebe of 16 acres, to which 2a. 3r. 17p. were added on the enclosure of the common. The church was erected about the 15th century, and is chiefly remarkable for its fine eastern window, which was removed to it in 1724, when the building underwent a thorough repair; the ivy which covers the walls contributes also to its picturesque appearance: a grant of £180 has been lately made by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners towards its repairs. The church has an annual economy fund of £3. 8. 10. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Saggard; in the village is a neat chapel, with a belfry, erected in 1813 at a cost of about £1500. There is a school in connection with the Board of National Education. In the village are the ruins of three old castles.
OUGHTERARD, a parish, in the barony of SOUTH SALT, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Rathcoole, on the road from Dublin to Naas; containing 223 inhabitants, and comprising 1075 statute acres. In the ecclesiastical divisions it is not known as a separate parish, but is enumerated as a townland in the parish of Kill, in the diocese of Kildare, the tithes of which are payable to the vicar of that parish. Here are the ruins of a small church, rebuilt in 1609 on the site of a chantry of great antiquity; under the west end is an ancient crypt, now used as the cemetery of the family of Ponsonby, of Bishops-court, in this county. In its vicinity are the remains of an ancient round tower, on a steep hill; the doorway is formed by a circular arch, 10 feet from the ground, and 10 feet higher on the south side is a window of the same shape and dimensions: from the summit is obtained an extensive prospect, including the promontory of Howth.
STRAFFAN, a parish, in the barony of NORTH SALT, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 3 miles (S. W.) from Celbridge, on the road to Naas; containing 727 inhabitants. It comprises 2212 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, which is nearly equally divided between tillage and pasture; the soil is in general a strong stiff clay. The Grand Canal passes within two, and the Royal Canal within about four, miles of the parish. The principal seats are Straffan House, the modern seat of H. Barton, Esq.; Barberstown, of Capt. Robinson; Lodge Park, of A. Henry, Esq., J. P.; and Straffan Lodge, the neat residence of Mrs. Whitelaw. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Dublin, forming part of the union of Celbridge; the rectory is impropriate in Mrs. Whitelaw; the tithes amount to £130, of which £80 is payable to the impropriator, and £50 to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions also it forms part of the union or district of Celbridge: the chapel is a neat edifice, situated in the village; connected with it is a Sunday and day school. A school for girls is supported by Mrs. Barton; and there are two private schools in which are about 60 children.
WHITECHURCH, a parish, in the barony of NORTH NAAS, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 3 miles (N.) from Naas, on the road to Celbridge; containing 279 inhabitants, and comprising 1875 statute acres. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Kildare, forming part of the union of Kill; the rectory is entirely impropriate in the Earl of Mayo. The tithes amount to £105, of which £45 is payable to the impropriator and £60 to the vicar. A priory of Carmelites is said to have stood here.